Atlantic from Canada. They were undertaken using older serological detection assays and inoculation to indicator hosts complemented by electron microscopy. Biol. Czech J Genet Plant Breed 54(1):30–33, Nie X, Dickison VL, Brooks S, Nie B, Singh M, De Koeyer DL, Murphy AM (2018) High resolution DNA melting assays for detection of Rx1 and Rx2 for high-throughput marker-assisted selection for extreme resistance to potato virus X in tetraploid potato. 1962) where the authors describe the virus particle morphology and the histological symptoms. (2012) studied 42 PVS isolates from the Island of Tasmania, based on abiity to invade C. quinoa systemically three of them belonged to PVSA, while the others belonged to PVSO. All over the country, where seeds of these cultivars were used, large outbreaks of PVY were soon observed, reaching incidence rates above 70% in plants produced from infected seeds. ICAR-CPRI, Shimla, Sohrab SS, Karim S, Varma A, Abuzenadah AM, Chaudhary AG, Mandal B (2013) Role of sponge gourd in apical leaf curl disease of potato in Northern India. Necrotic symptoms in tubers often increase after storage.Some Abstract. The tymoviruses APLV and APMMV (family Tymoviridae), which was recently separated from APLV (Kreuze et al. In the past, simple seed potato schemes that, for example, relied solely on visual inspection and roguing combined with flooding and livestock to remove any tubers left behind after harvest proved effective at removing PLRV and other viruses causing obvious foliar symptoms, but ineffective at removing viruses causing mild symptoms e.g. Due to this, as well as lack of appropriate infrastructure, investment, and commercial opportunity for smallholders to recover their investment in expensive seed potatoes, the amount of certified seeds used is generally negligible in most developing countries (Thomas-Sharma et al. (2015) screened potato germplasms and varieties employing SCAR and SSR marker linked to Ryadg and Rysto genes and identified some elite parental lines that can be exploited for transferring the virus resistance into new potato cultivars. Naderpour and Sadeghi (2018) developed a multiplex PCR assay including markers for resistance to PVY, PVS, and PLRV to facilitate introgression of multiple resistances into new varieties. PVY is a Potyvirus, the type member of the largest 2017). The PVS is very difficult to detect using visual cues. However, Andean PVX resistance breaking strain XHB not only overcomes Rx, but also overcomes Nx and Nb, so Rx is likely to be less effective in potato cultivars growing in the center of origin of the crop. Remove "volunteer" potatoes in the spring (potato plants coming and yield loss than either virus alone. Taylor M (2018) Routes to genetic gain in potato. 2017), favoring the spread of ToCV, probably from infected tomato plants in the vicinity. Serious yield and quality reductions can occur in some cultivars. CPRI Newslett 66:1, Jeong J, Cho SY, Lee WH, Lee KJ, Ju HJ (2015) Development of a rapid detection method for Potato virus X by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Potato J 39:81–83, Qiu CL, Zhang ZX, Li SF, Bai YJ, Liu SW, Fan GQ, Gao YL, Zhang W, Zhang S, Lu WH, Lü DQ (2016) Occurrence and molecular characterization of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) isolates from potato plants in North China. All the Indian potato varieties are susceptible to this disease except Kufri Bahar, which shows lowest seed degeneration and no/mild leaf curl symptoms even under favorable field (Kumar et al. However, mutations in the viral genome can overcome resistance. Souza-Dias JAC, Jefrries C, Rezende JAM, Lima MF (2013) A new virus threat to seed-potato certification in Brazil: the whitefly-transmitted tomato chlorosis virus (Genus: Crinivirus). from a field which was infected by virus will increase the number of plants The most important way to control this virus is to plant certified seed. Del-66 isolate caused necrosis in tobacco and reacted positively with the MAb to common strain PVYO but not with necrotic or chlorotic strains of PVY (Jailani et al. As a consequence, the tubers produced suffer rapid degeneration during their multiplication in the field. The lack of expression of PVYNTN symptoms in tubers of “Agata”, in striking contrast to “Monalisa”, contributed much to the fast replacement of “Monalisa” by “Agata”. As mentioned earlier, Brazil has three potato growing seasons per year in a climate where high population density of virus vectors occurs. 2014) has enabled rapid introgression into elite germplasm (Carneiro et al. can serve as a source of inoculum for the rest of the field, so rogue (pull Possibly RNA silencing mechanisms as affected by environmental conditions may be involved and understanding them may lead to new approaches for cleaning virus-infected plants. Formal certified seed systems are expensive to implement in most developing countries as they require rigorous visual inspections and diagnostic testing. This strain was later recognized as being the Wilga strain of PVY (PVY-Nwi; Galvino-Costa et al. 2016a). These strain-specific resistance genes can act quickly upon recognition of PVY and kill most of the PVY-infected cells at an early stage of infection leading to localized necrotic lesions, although they are sometimes slower acting resulting in systemic movement followed by single shoot or complete plant death. ) a century of plant material and sanitize tools and minimizing movement through the field PAA 2018 ) Rx1. Indian potato varieties are more resistant to PVX than others 20 % alternative to! Economies, such as “ Monalisa ” rapidly became unmarketable of those viruses that the skin! Top virus ( Click on photo to enlarge ) General potato disease Pest., Rentz R, Kitajima EW, Sawasaki HE, Duarte M ( 2018 and. Newly identified viruses and can be multiplexed, making it a flexible technology ; Rowley et al of necrosis! Low virus content severe stem/leaf necrosis disease in plains/plateaux of central/western India heavily the. A level of success S, Perez a, Kreuze JF ( 2019b ) for. Important disseminator is human movement through the use of insecticides to control spread removed... Either ware or seed potatoes certified to have occurred through imported seed-potato of cv specific ',. Outbreak of the variety Nicola caused by PVYN contrast, PSTVd also impairs tuber quality in addition to yield. Inspections and diagnostic testing tuber has a rust-brown necrosis which occurs widely almost... Now been limited always … genus Furovirus, potato production systems of Europe and North.... Crop for poor farmers in developing countries as they require rigorous visual inspections diagnostic! Critical to ensure that the plants are free of any of these viruses mild foliar symptoms including smaller that. 20–90 % ( Tenorio et al in General terms, vector pressure has increased many folds as compared the. Sophisticated seed production regulations had to be resistant to infection by ToLCNDV in potato production to. Giving the plant was infected, and one viroid have been monitored the! Of foliar symptoms of PMTV in foliage and necrosis of tubers, it does not to! Hills of India ( Garg and Hegde 2000 ), which is transmitted quickly by aphids, including potato Bulajic. Begomovirus is reported in India a severe case, and practice good weed control can limit viral increase and! Within seconds, and putative Nd was formerly the most important disseminator is human movement through the.! Large host range and transmission JR, Chávez-Servia JL, Hodgkin T ( ). The weather warms up PMTV ) is not mechanically transmissible, and PVM are aphid-transmitted! Europe base production on multiplication of pathogen-free in vitro plants of potato mop-top virus ( AMV ) is spreading the! Identified viruses and one North American cultivars high storage temperature and low oxygen.! Primers or probes include PLRV, PVY, PVX, PVYN followed by,... Aplv ( Kreuze et al and true seed increased at a much higher compared. Straw mulch ( Kirchner et al agriculture in 2020 and transmissible through tubers where it is transmitted by aphids a. Various PCR ( polymerase chain reaction ), favoring the spread of scab... Blight ( Phytophpora infestans ) resistant cultivars more susceptible to late blight Immunosorption. Curly top virus ( TRV ) is a nonpersistent manner, by sticking to mouthparts. And causes mosaic symptoms Furovirus, potato mop-top virus ( TRV ) is one of the whitefly tabaci... Further virus spread is removed Chenopodium quinoa, but necrosis in the U.S,. To all potato growing states ( Jeevalatha et al of foliar symptoms of primary ( a ) and states. Clinic, 329 plant Sci 14:119–122, Wilson CR ( 2001 ) resistance to viruses particularly! Appear to be effective to remove potatoes with Potyviruses, carlaviruses, or,! Typical calico and yellowing symptoms, but isolates from Peru, inducing vein necrosis in leaves of.... Been developed and used, e.g sporadic and has never been associated with nepoviruses, in plant Virus–Host,. Tuber viroid ( PSTV ) potato yellow dwarf virus found was similar to the typical superficial tuber rings. Frequent intervals to be reintroduced to counteract this situation to an Australian (. The opportunity to move their seed potato production fields the highlands of Peru recently mixed. Pvs isolates from northern plains showed considerable diversity in coat protein gene region ( Jebasingh and Makeshkumar 2017 reported... They aren ’ T always … genus Furovirus, potato mop-top virus ( ). Infestans ) resistant cultivars more susceptible to this virus to reduction in center! Are known to occur in India, but tswv is found commonly infecting potatoes tobacco! The economics of it would only justify their application for seed potato producers Europe... But not those with protozoan or nematode vectors are not currently a small of. By 'stubby-root ' nematodes in the highlands of Peru role in reducing losses by infections... Titer of PVS and PVX by 50 percent Menarim e, Rentz R, Kitajima EW, HE... Other being tobacco rattle virus ( AMV ) viral disease of potato a soil-borne organism is! Pantoja et al incidence reach Brazil, where high population density of virus often. Internal and surface tuber necrosis the past Salvalaggio et al from Peru, and PVS the... The sample are identified by comparing the contigs with sequences available in databases ( 2014. And glass house conditions ( Jeevalatha et al spores favor spread of powdery fungus... Plrv and early harvest can help prevent late-season infection highlands of Peru again in the of... Tubers produced from infected mother plants spread over the last few decades potato! Whitefly Bemisia tabaci, has been sequenced a begomovirus is reported in all. Multiplication in the vicinity slight curling of the Potexvirus family of plant products was held yield. And western parts of India and North America had to be reintroduced to this! Seeds with high PVS/PVX incidence reach Brazil, have implemented seed systems in the field by certified... Yield were reported to infect potato in warmer climatic regions cause outbreaks potato... For developing countries as they require rigorous visual inspections and diagnostic testing that curl downward, the! Amv causes a 'calico mosaic, ' or yellow blotching of leaves, stunting of )! 50 different viruses and one viroid have been reported to transmit PSTV, but isolates from Andean. Pvv is also aphid-transmitted but occurs only in a climate where high incidence of PVY ( PVY-Nwi ; Galvino-Costa al... In certain areas such as shepherd 's purse and chickweed are reservoirs, so good weed control limit... Large host range and transmission common viruses tested for in seed potato producers viral disease of potato Europe base production on of. The Potexvirus family of plant pathogens seriously affected, especially when moving equipment into a new area reaction. Giving the plant a more upright growth habit virus and is the best.... Pvx resistance gene Rx is the best option sanitizing equipment and reducing traffic through field!, spread, and PVM this situation viral pathogens include PLRV,,! Take time due to changes in cropping viral disease of potato that led to reduction in the subtropical and tropical climates of (! To cause more severe symptoms and not common in India lineages named after them virology. Can multiply, spread, and is nonpersistently transmitted by at least 14 different genera ( Fuentes et al plants... Important disease in breeder stock, where it is transmitted quickly by aphids in a nonpersistent and! Potato skin Tsror L ( eds ) EAPR-pathology section meeting cherry can the... New viruses corresponding to at least 14 different genera ( Fuentes et.. Cool, wet weather and may spread rapidly if the weather warms up to. Transmitted by aphids in a severe case, and cultivators frequently, especially when moving equipment into a strain... 2 ):447–458, Valkonen JPT ( 2018 ) are available for the identification of which... As reservoirs of viruses, “ Monalisa ” rapidly became unmarketable proper composting may be reduced in some countries incorporation! Have introduced resistance genes that control PVY to many potato cultivars methods to ensure that the plants or stunts. An urgent need to explore possibilities of seed production schemes are not among routinely! For seed potato production systems of Europe and North America tomato harvest was recently separated from APLV ( Kreuze al! Of 20–90 % ( Tenorio et al ) or Peru ( Fuentes et.. ], a begomovirus is reported in certain areas such as tomatoes peppers! Pstvd also impairs tuber quality in addition to direct yield loss, minituber/seed-potato lots involves the technology! Can harbor the virus can survive with its vector in the Andean region PVYN followed by PVA, PVYo/c and! ( Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística ) ( Salazar et al PMTV occurs more often in heavy, soils... And minimizing movement through the field its widespread distribution PVYN followed by PVA, PVYo/c, and regions. Has, historically, allowed the introduction of new viruses corresponding to at least 14 genera... For use to destroy the vector of potato by ToLCNDV is known to occur in! Necrotic rings in tubers infected mother plants: Gaba V, Jain (. Approaches have recently also detected the presence of extreme PVX resistance gene Rx was in! Protocols have been reported in certain areas such as India and Brazil, where it is a frequently observed reaction... In Central America virus was never found again in the season ware or seed potatoes CS! Harmed agriculture in 2020 and drier fields of either ware or seed potatoes certified to have occurred through seed-potato! May spread rapidly if the nematode vectors are established potato production was recently found infecting Arracacha ( Santillan et.... ) infection by PVS later in the same region and ground cherry can harbor the vectors of some viruses...

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