impacts due to oil spills and to glean insight for future oil spill response planning. This paper draws on the author's direct experience with human dimensions gained from response to several oil spills, including the Exxon Valdez (1989), the Transredes pipeline spill in Bolivia (2000), and the DWH oil spill (2010), and research on oil spill risk communication. Ritchie’s research into the social effects of oil spills from both Exxon Valdez and Deepwater Horizon, as well as her social impact assessment work for the Gitga’at, have continued to inform other communities how best to prepare for oil spills — at both a physical and psychosocial level. Therefore, the response organization should be flexible enough to manage by feedback and allow the emergence of problem-solving ad hoc organizational elements. Social responsibility calls for transparency. Inherent resilience operates at a local level that is not readily revealed by economic measures used to gauge the impacts of and recovery from hazard events (Colten et al., 2012). The human dimensions of spills include health, social, economic, use, and cultural impacts to a wide range of entities at multiple scales, including individuals, families, businesses, communities, institutions, and government. “What people described most was the silence,” Ritchie said. Disaster research literature also tells us that following major public emergencies, disasters and catastrophes, organizations evolve and new organizational structures emerge, especially in reaction to the impacts on the community and social consequences. Therefore, some human dimension impacts, such as psychosocial impacts, are not eligible for compensation under the OSLTF, which means the recourse for compensation for those injuries is to file suit directly against the RP, pursued through litigation. One aspect of resilience is self-sufficiency. But smaller spills also may be considered disasters, especially by nearby communities. In the same article, Tierney observes that the response to natural disasters under the Stafford Act promotes horizontal collaboration but that the Incident Command System (ICS) and Unified command, the management system used for oil spill response under the NCP, has limitations. Retrieved from: National Pollution Funds Center and the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund Presentation for Federal On-Scene Coordinator Crisis Management Course, USCG Marine Safety Schools. For instance, social impacts on tourism and hospitality industries causes reduction in jobs, poverty and revenue. Participating in solving problems rather than being helpless victims, e.g., waiting for government assistance or for claims to be paid or litigated, builds resilience. An oil spill may disrupt local fishing and tourism, thereby directly affect the livelihood and way of life individual fisherman, boat operators, hoteliers and restaurateurs. With the widespread use of social media, stakeholders and the global public are able to express their concerns and objections about oil spills; demand transparency and aggressive action during an incident to protect people and the environment, mitigate all impacts; and call to punish those responsible. ICS is inherently flexible and therefore its doctrine can be adapted to promote greater horizontal collaboration, providing that collaborative objectives are given priority along with the tactical/operational objectives to promote engaging with local stakeholders, e.g., affected communities, trusted sources and academia. In the past, there has been no designated function or responsibility for public health, welfare, or human dimensions within the ICS-based incident management organization, perhaps due to the operational emphasis on oil removal and environmental protection. Deepwater Horizon: Another Year Gone By, What’s Changed? Oil spills can cause serious damage to fisheries and mariculture resources. Social responsibility is a form of self-regulation which is being integrated into businesses, government and other organizations to operate in a socially responsible way (ISO 26000). Coordination between government and industry must be pre-planned, account for stakeholder interests and ensure a response organization that will be cohesive and effective. Understandably, the legal teams for both RPs and government decision makers advise their clients to avoid actions and statements that could compromise current or potential cases, give an advantage to plaintiff attorneys, or set a disadvantageous precedent in future litigations. Research, Part of a Special Feature on Vulnerability and Adaptation to Oil Spills. (2013) describes some shortfalls in managing seafood safety and risk perceptions. The OSLTF can be used to pay for claims for: uncompensated removal costs; loss of profits or earning capacity; loss of Federal, State, or Local government revenues; costs to state or local governments for increased public services; loss of subsistence use of natural resources; damages to real or personal property; and natural resource damages. Noteworthy also is the importance given to perception of the public, media and all stakeholders that the response is successful. Sea plants are very important for the survival of marine animals. And the following are its effects. Economic damages include: injury to natural resources, injury to real or personal property, loss of revenues on the use of natural resources or property, loss of profits or impairment of earning capacity, and the costs of providing additional public services during or after removal activities (33USC § 2702). The Gitga’at were concerned about a proposed pipeline project, the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines, which would have brought increased maritime and ground transportation to the the area. … Community resilience refers to the capacity of people to cope with a serious event that impacts them but they did not cause, and is managed by outside entities like government, insurance, and experts. Of the array of human dimension impacts, compensation for economic and subsistence loss and damages can be considered through the claims process. Oil spills can damage the environment and the wildlife and marine life that depend on it. “One gentleman in particular told me he made a bonfire out of the dozens of file boxes he had after the settlement went through,” Ritchie said. Disaster researchers argue that the effects of technological disasters differ from other types of hazardous events due to the uncertainty or ambiguity of harm which surrounds the event (Edelstein, 1988). However, public perceptions regarding health risks from oil spills and dispersants have been reported in the media, reports, and journals (Belter 2013). for 1+3, enter 4. Ann Hayward Walker; Human Dimension Impacts of Oil Spills and Social Responsibility: Evolving Needs. The main criteria for approval of uncompensated removal claims is whether the Federal On-scene Coordinator (FOSC) was notified of, and/or whether the FOSC would have or did authorize, removal actions. The overarching rationale of the oil spill institutional framework in the US and elsewhere is protecting US waters from pollution, that is, environmental protection. The concept of resilience, both ecological and community has important implications for oil spill response. More Information. It is important to develop sustain and external linkages to familiarize the community with the external entities, like oil spill responders. The tribe sits about a four hour ferry ride from Prince Rupert, a port city and the nearest major town. Ritchie said there were some who were extremely active in the process of compensation and litigation, but that others simply couldn’t handle the stress of experiencing the trauma again and again for the purpose of documenting it. It is a rationale for considering a broader class of impacts, such as human dimensions. Some might remark, “Satisfying the public is not the responsibility of oil spill responders”; their job is to manage the oil spill and mitigate its effects. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Website Satisfaction Survey | Information Quality | Accessibility | FOIA, Website owner: Office of Response and Restoration | NOAA's Ocean Service | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | US Department of Commerce | USA.gov, By Alyssa Gray, Office of Response and Restoration. It was like a sort of PTSD [post-traumatic stress disorder],” Ritchie said. These external stakeholders encompass citizens who live in the vicinity of a spill, elected officials, and the global public at large. In 1994, following the passage of OPA 90, the NCP was revised (EPA, 1994) and new multi-agency guidance was issued on the Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) and oil spill response training. Engaging new local stakeholders also could reveal innovative scenarios, and revitalize the PREP exercises which have become rather predictable over the last 20 years. The media reports public expressions of concern about ecological impacts when oil spills occur. Personnel from the NPFC, which administers the OSLTF, routinely provide instruction on oil spill funding to FOSCs and other senior federal and state and industry incident commanders who could one day be members of Unified Command. Included in one of the recent presentations was a slide relating KBDs to CSFs, evidence that these concepts continue to be relevant (Buie, 2013). The FOSC, in consultation with federal and state agencies, determines the level of cleanup required and when federal response operations will terminate. Beyond compensation for removal costs, compensation for loss and damages are handled through both the claims process and third-party litigation against the RP, and potentially others. But changes in public policy are unlikely, considering that oil spills would have to compete as a priority with other current policy issues for the attention of federal and state law makers. Ecological recovery is dependent upon many variables ranging from type and volume of oil, to time of year, location, life stage and feeding behavior of organisms. The effects of oil spills are worse when the site is near coastal communities. It follows that public participation in future oil spills ideally should have a purpose that benefits both the response and the public. This paper also explores potential opportunities to incorporate social responsibility into oil spill preparedness and response strategies as ways to mitigate human dimensions impacts going forward. Ritchie has since worked on several other major spills, including Deepwater Horizon, which is at present the largest oil spill in U.S. history. Oil Spills Affect Fish. Long-term effects of oil spills in Bodo, Nigeria Environmental devastation, ruined economy and deteriorating health afflict Bodo community years after Shell oil spill. Effects of Oil Spill. A key component of building community resilience is to raise community adaptive capacity, which requires the transfer of resources and knowledge from the response organization to the community (Cheong, 2012). Militancy, reduction in tourism and hospitality industries activities by … Prevent the Costly environmental impacts of oil the... Response decisions of those in leadership positions involved a lot of paperwork, and these recover! Businesses and organizations when Deepwater Horizon: Another year Gone by, What ’ s changed compensation, damage fisheries... Hand includes community conflicts, violence and frustration which leads to militancy, in... That people experience oil, either as a result of contamination of vessels and year or by fishing.! 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