Diffuse-axonal Injury – This injury can be caused by a strong rotation of the head, such as when produced by the rotational forces of a car accident. The male-to-female ratio for traumatic brain injury is nearly 2:1, and traumatic brain injury is much more common in persons younger than 35 years. A head injury is a broad term that describes a vast array of injuries that occur to the scalp, skull, brain, and underlying tissue and blood vessels in the head. Brain injury, Pupil, Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects more than 1.4 mil-lion Americans annually.1 These injuries, defined as a blow or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts normal brain function,2 occur as a result of falls (28%), motor vehicle crashes (20%), … [2] An object that penetrates brain tissue, such as a bullet or shattered piece of skull, also can cause traumatic brain injury. As the primary insult, which represents the direct mechanical damage, cannot be therapeutically influenced, target of the treatment is the limitation of the secondary damage (delayed non-mechanical damage). Traumatic brain injury usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head or body. Mechanisms of Injury 9 Table 1-2 MVC-related Mechanisms of Injury Pathway Potential Injuries Unrestrained— Head, face, and neck injuries from impact “up and over” with windshield or sunroof Chest injuries—steering wheel impact Abdominal injuries—steering wheel impact (dependent upon body habitus) Airbag injury to face, neck, chest () The knowledge of the pathophysiology after traumatic head injury is necessary for adequate and patient-oriented treatment. Head injuries vary widely in their etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and optimal treatment strategies. The severity of the injury. Moderate head injury — There is a more obvious injury to the outside of the head, and the person may have lost consciousness briefly. 2. Mild traumatic brain injury may affect your brain cells temporarily. Chapter 3 Mechanism of injury Brian D. Stemper, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Dennis J. Maiman Injuries to the human body from external dynamic exposure occur due to the application of abnormal loads or motions that exceed physiological limits. Abstract. Head injuries can be classified according to; 1. Anatomical classification 3. and classification of closed head injuries and for serial assessment of closed head injuries. Pathological classification-penetrating or blunt injury 4. Coup-contrecoup – This type of traumatic brain injury is a contusion that occurs both at the site of impact on the opposite side of the brain. Head injuries are also commonly referred to as brain injury, or traumatic brain injury (TBI), depending on the extent of the head trauma. 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